Les Aventures de Pinocchio (mini-série, 1972)

Gina Lollobrigida dans le rôle de la fée Turquoise

Les Aventures de Pinocchio (Le avventure di Pinocchio) est un feuilleton télévisé italien en six épisodes de 55 minutes adapté du conte de fées de Carlo Collodi, réalisé par Luigi Comencini et diffusé du au sur la RAI.

En France, la série a été diffusée du 19 au sur la première chaîne de l’ORTF. Rediffusion dans les années 80 dans l’émission Croque vacances sur TF1 puis dans Salut les toons, en 1989 dans l’émission Amuse 3 sur FR3 et M6.

Par la suite, le feuilleton a été remonté et réduit à une durée d’environ 135 minutes, pour une exploitation en salle, sa sortie en France a eu lieu le .

Un village de Toscane vers la fin du XIXe siècle. Employés du forain et marionnettiste Mangiafuoco, « Le Chat » et « Le Renard », distribuent des affichettes pour le spectacle. Ce qui donne l’idée au pauvre menuisier Geppetto de se fabriquer une marionnette. Bien qu’avare, son voisin Cerise lui donne une bûche dont il cherchait à se débarrasser. Sa marionnette achevée, Gepetto la baptise Pinocchio. Mais celle-ci se met à bouger et à parler. La nuit suivante, une fée transforme la marionnette en petit garçon de chair et de sang, qu’elle menace de ramener à l’état de pantin à chaque faute qu’il commettra. Ce qui n’empêche pas Pinocchio de voler, peu après, un fromage à un pêcheur…

Le tournage en Italie a débuté à Farnese le , et s’est achevé en 1972. Le mixage final a été terminé le 6 mars 1972.

Wheeler Walker

Wheeler Walker, Jr. (born 13 December 1980) is a country music singer-songwriter. His debut album Redneck Shit, produced by Dave Cobb (Sturgill Simpson, Chris Stapleton, Jason Isbell) was released February 12, 2016. It debuted at #9 on the Billboard Country Charts, #1 on the Billboard Comedy Charts and #127 on The Billboard 200. It was the first album to debut in both the top ten of the comedy and country charts for a decade.

Many are calling it the dirtiest country album of all time. It is the first album on the Billboard Country Charts with an expletive in the title.

Rolling Stone called it „Unfathomably obscene and undeniably offensive, the debut album from Nashville never-was Wheeler Walker Jr. is also goddamn funny. But Redneck Shit is far from just an X-rated novelty record.“

Wheeler was born and raised in Lexington, Kentucky, where his father Wheeler Walker, Sr. worked in the coal industry.

Wheeler dropped out of high school and moved to Nashville in 1998. He signed with Mercury/Nashville in 2000, but due to his insistence on using R-rated language, the album was shelved and has never been released.

He later signed to Capitol/Nashville, but again, the label refused to release the album and it too remains unavailable.

Walker gigged consistently throughout the decade. Singer-songwriter Billy Joe Shaver has often referred to him as the „best songwriter in Nashville“ despite not having any official releases.

While Walker’s peers, including Brad Paisley, Blake Shelton and Keith Urban have gone on to greater success, Wheeler has refused to censor his music and has reportedly had fallings out with all three of these musicians.

In 2015, Wheeler finally hit the studio with Dave Cobb with plans to self-release his first official album. It eventually found distribution with Nashville’s Thirty Tigers.

Walker has an ex-wife (Ellie) and son Wheeler Walker, III („Trey“) – Ellie is said to have briefly dated Brad Paisley during their divorce, although Paisley has repeatedly denied this.

Walker’s music has gained significant airplay on Sirius XM Outlaw Country radio, where DJ Mojo Nixon stated, „When genius arrives, it must be heard.“

Redneck Shit was released February 12, 2016 via Thirty Tigers/Pepper Hill Records. The album originally premiered via stream on the pornographic website PornHub.

Jesse Boone

Jesse Rostenbach Boone (born January 28, 1982) is a former American football center who played for the Las Vegas Locomotives of the UFL. He was signed by the Cincinnati Bengals as an undrafted free agent in 2006. He played college football at Utah.

Boone was also a member of the Rhein Fire, Oakland Raiders and Utah Blaze.

Boone attended Millard High School where he was a two-year starter on offense and defense. He was also a team captain. He helped lead his team to the regional championship in both 1998 and 1999. He lettered three years in football and once in basketball and wrestling. He was a member of the National Honor Society his last three years at Millard. He was on the honor roll all four years. He was also the student body vice president as a sophomore and the student body secretary as senior. He was also a First-team All-State and All-Region selection.

Boone then attended Utah, where he played Center for the Utes. As a true freshman in 2001 he redshirted. In 2002, he played in seven games, allowing him to letter in football. He averaged 93% in total blocking efficiency, with an average of 97% in pass blocking and 87% in run blocking. In the game against Michigan he recorded 100% total blocking efficiency. In 2003, He started the first three games at left tackle before an ankle injury ended his season. In his three games, he averaged four knockdowns and 79.5% overall blocking grade. He earned Academic All-MWC. In 2004, he played in and started all 12 games at center. In 11 regular season games, he played 775 snaps with 49 knockdowns. He tied for the team lead for total plays by an offensive lineman with 775. he had five games with five or more knockdowns. He recorded a career-high eight knockdowns against San Diego State with an 86% average blocking grade. He recorded seven knockdowns against both UNC and BYU with an 84% and 87% total blocking grades, respectively. He recorded back-to-back games with six knockdowns against Utah State and Air Force. He earned Academic All-MWC, he also earned Athletics Academic Honor Roll, and Second-team All-Conference. He recorded a career best 13 knockdowns against Pittsburgh in the 2005 Fiesta Bowl. As a senior in 2005 Boone was voted a team captain by his coaches and teammates. He was also a preseason All-Conference candidate at center, named to the preseason Rimington Trophy watch list, as well as the Outland and Lombardi Award watch lists. He also ranked fourth on the team with a 348lb. power clean, which measures explosive power. He once again earned Academic All-MWC, he also earned Athletics Academic Honor Roll, and this time was First-team All-Conference. The Utes went on to win a decisive victory over Georgia Tech in the 2006 Emerald Bowl. After the season, he played in the Hula Bowl.

Boone went unselected in the 2006 NFL Draft. Later, he was signed by the Cincinnati Bengals. However, he was waived on August 16.

Boone then spent the spring of 2007 playing for the Rhein Fire in NFL Europa where he started all 10 games at right tackle and as a wedge blocker on kickoff return.

On August 1, 2007, Boone signed with the Oakland Raiders. He was waived on September 2 and re-signed to the practice squad two days later.

On October 18, 2006, Boone signed with the Utah Blaze of the Arena Football League, the same team his brother played for. On February 26, he left the team to re-join the Oakland Raiders. The next day, the Blaze released him to the Exempt: Other league list.

Boone was signed to a future contract by the Oakland Raiders on January 1, 2008. However, he was waived by the Raiders during final cuts on August 30.

On September 22, 2008, Boone was he was activated off Utah Blaze’s exempt list. However, he was released from his contract when the Arena Football League folded in 2009.

Boone was signed by the Las Vegas Locomotives of the United Football League on August 31, 2009. Jesse Boone started all seven games at center and led the team in total plays and knockdowns. The Locomotives went on to win the Inaugural UFL Championship Game vs the Florida Tuskers. Jesse was named to the All-UFL Access First Team following the season. In 2010, Boone and the Locos repeated as UFL Champions beating the Florida Tuskers for a second straight time. Boone played 100% of the Locos offensive snaps in 2010, and once again received All-League honors. In 2011, the Locos returned to the UFL Championship game, but were defeated by Marty Shottenheimer and the Virginia Destroyers. Once again Boone led the Locos offense in total plays and knockdowns in the shortened season.

Jesse graduated in May 2004 with a double major in Economics and Business administration. He then enrolled in the MBA program at Utah. He also scored a 640 on the GMAT. Boone graduated with a Masters in Business Administration in the spring of 2006 following his senior season of football.

Boone is the son of Coley Boone and Sherry Peterson. Both of his parents attended BYU. While there, his father played football. Jesse Boone, is from family of 10 children (five boys, five girls). His younger brother Jason was also an offensive lineman at Utah and played professionally for the New Orleans Saints of the NFL, the BC Lions of the CFL, and the Utah Blaze of the AFL. His older brother Aaron played wide receiver for Kentucky and spent time with the Dallas Cowboys, Chicago Bears, Carolina Panthers, Berlin Thunder NFLE, and the Utah Blaze. His sister Amy played basketball and volleyball at George Mason University and played semi-pro basketball for the San Diego Waves of the National Women’s Basketball League. Jesse is married to Jennette Boone.

Harelle

The Harelle (French pronunciation: ​[aʁɛl]; from haro) was a revolt that occurred in the French city of Rouen in 1382 followed by the Maillotins Revolt a few days later in Paris, and numerous other revolts across France in the subsequent week. France was in the midst of the Hundred Years War, and had seen decades of warfare, widespread destruction, high taxation, and economic decline, made worse by bouts of plague. In Rouen, the second largest city in the kingdom, the effects of the war were particularly felt. Tensions had been building nationally for nearly a year following the death of Charles V; on his deathbed he repealed many of the war taxes he had previously imposed. With the re-imposition of the taxes months later, a localized revolt led by Rouen’s guilds, occurred in the city and was followed by many similar such incidents across the kingdom. Charles VI traveled with an army led by his uncle and regent, Philip the Bold Duke of Burgundy, from Paris. Paris itself revolted shortly after the army left the city. After returning to Paris to deal with the rebels there, the Duke and King traveled with an army to Rouen to end the revolt. The leaders of the Harelle in Rouen feared execution on the scale that occurred in Paris, and resolved to not resist the army. Twelve leaders of the revolt were executed, the city’s rights were revoked and it was put under the rule of a royal governor, and a fine of 100,000 francs was imposed. Despite the victory, the King was unable to re-enforce the taxation that prompted the revolt, and spent most of the next two years putting down similar tax revolts around the kingdom that followed the example of Rouen. The Harelle was one of many popular revolts in late medieval Europe, including the English peasants‘ revolt of 1381 one year earlier, all part of a larger crisis of the Late Middle Ages.

Charles V, King of France died in 1380 and on his deathbed repealed all of the royal taxes at the suggestion of his confessor, to better prepare his soul for the afterlife. France was in the midst of the Hundred Years War with England. The kingdom was entirely dependent upon the royal taxes for the prosecution of the war effort, and their repeal resulted in the collapse of the war effort for a period of time. Complicating matters was that Charles‘ successor, Charles VI, was a minor and was under the regency of his three uncles, the Dukes of Burgundy, Berry, and Anjou. Louis, Duke of Anjou was the senior regent, but the three disagreed on policies for France. The plague and war had ravaged the kingdom, and the heavy taxation increased poverty in many parts of the country. The cities were particularly affected, as people abandoned the countryside for the security of the larger walled cities. England was having similar financial difficulties, and the high taxation led to the Peasants‘ Revolt there in 1381.

By 1382 an agreement for managing the country had been agreed to, with Philip, Duke of Burgundy left to manage the administration. After several failed attempts to have taxation approved by the councils and estates general of the numerous French principalities, the Duke resolved to reimpose the gabelle, a sales tax on salt, and the aides, a customs duty. The representatives of Paris were summoned before the King on January 16 and individually pressured to approve the imposition of the new tax. Under duress they agreed, but the news only gradually became known to the public. The Duke, as was customary at the time, appointed tax farmers to collect the tax.

The first violence to break out as a result of the re-imposition of the taxes occurred in Rouen, the second largest city in the kingdom. On February 24, a group of men led by draper Jean le Gras, began sounding the great bells of the city’s commune. Another group of men seized and closed the gates of the city, and a large mob quickly filled the streets. The mob was drawn largely from the poorest section of the city and was referred to as „la merdaille“ by a local chronicler. The initial target of the mob was the wealthy, the town’s councillors, the churches, and the tax farmers. Few people were killed, but there was widespread destruction. The mob looted every major building in the city. As the day progressed, the leaders of the mob directed the attack against any building thought to contain public records. All records containing evidence of rents, lawsuits, debts, rights and privileges were destroyed.

A mob left the city and attacked the nearby Abbey of St. Ouen where they destroyed the gallows and entered the abbey to recover the city’s charter, which had been granted to the city by Louis X after a similar rebellion in 1315. The abbot managed to escape to a nearby castle, but a large part of the abbey was destroyed. The charter was put on a large pole and paraded around the city. It granted significant individual rights to the citizens, but the document was rarely enforced in the normal times. The leaders of the city were rounded up and forced to take an oath and swear to abide by the charter. The riots lasted three days. The Archbishop of Rouen William V de Lestranges, who held feudal rights over the city, was captured and forced to renounce his claims to the city.

The Duke of Burgundy recruited a small army from the garrisons in and around Paris and set out for Rouen accompanied by Charles VI and several other high officials. After being gone from the city only two days, they learnt that a far more violent revolt had broken out in Paris, and quickly turned the army to return to the capital.

On March 3, the tax farmers began to collect the new tax in Paris. Violence began in the market of Les Halles. About five hundred men attacked collector’s booths, beating several collectors to death. The mob quickly grew into the thousands and attacked the Place de Grève in search of weapons. They located a large store of iron mallets; Jean Froissart coined the term „maillotins“, so naming their revolt. The newly armed mob spread out across the city attacking buildings where anything of value was thought to be. Churches, businesses, the homes of the wealthy, and government buildings were all looted. The hôtel of the Duke of Anjou was seized and used as a headquarters. The mob began to attack wealthy individuals, government officials, business owners, and moneylenders, beating them to death. The riot quickly degenerated into a pogrom, and the Jewish section of the city was attacked. Hundreds of Jews were murdered, their children forcibly baptized.

The city’s royal captain, Maurise de Treseguidy, led his small contingent in an attempt to stem the violence. The mob quickly ran chains across the streets and began to attack the soldiers, who were forced to flee. The government of the city fled along with most of the royal administration and met with the King and the returning army. What military forces remained held onto the Grand Châtelet, a fortified royal building in the city.

When the king arrived at the gates of Paris on March 5, the Duke of Burgundy negotiated with leaders of the mob from the city walls. They offered to submit and allow the king to reenter the city if he met three conditions: abolish all royal taxes, release certain individuals imprisoned by the Duke in recent months, and grant amnesty to everyone who had been involved in the Parisian revolt. The Duke replied that the King would release the prisoners, but not meet their other demands. Fresh violence immediately erupted in the city. The mob attacked the Chatelet and killed several soldiers who were unable to escape. The prisons of the city were opened and everyone released. During the night, however, the mob faded away and leaders of the city’s guilds took control of the situation. They too refused to open the gates and offered to negotiate with the King. The King and his army seized posts overlooking the city and stopped river traffic into the city, cutting off its primary source of food. The Duke of Burgundy summoned a large army of retainers from his domains, and the Dukes of Brittany and Anjou sent forces to assist in suppressing the rebellion.

News of the revolts in Rouen and Paris spread across France, and many other places followed suit. Amiens, Dieppe, Falaise, Caen, Orléans, and Rheims were all seized by rebels who followed the pattern established by Rouen and Paris. The cities were looted, the wealthy persecuted, the Jews proscribed, and public records destroyed. More revolts occurred across the south of France, and the Estates of Languedoc who were meeting to consider granting a new tax, dispersed without making the much needed grant. Phoebus Gaston, Count of Foix, repudiated the lieutenancy of the Duke of Berry over southern France and raised an army set up his own administration after seizing Toulouse. The largely autonomous areas of Provence, Brittany, and Burgundy, where the royal government had no taxing authority, were the only parts of the country to avoid a revolt. Tax collection became impossible which in turn made raising a substantial army to deal with the revolution nearly impossible, forcing the royal council to compromise. The King agreed to repeal the taxes and offered amnesty to all those involved, but they were required to submit to mediation. After regaining admittance to Paris, the leaders of the Parisian revolt were rounded up and executed.

With control of Paris reestablished, the King and the Duke took the army and again set out for Rouen. The city put up no resistance and opened the gates when the king arrived on March 29. Their leaders feared execution, but most were spared. Only twelve leaders of the revolt were executed, the city’s bells were confiscated, the gates of the city symbolically thrown down, a 100,000 franc fine imposed, the city charter was revoked and Rouen was put under the administration of a royal governor.

The government was unable to reimpose the taxes needed to continue the war effort in the short term, and considerable effort had to be put forth to reassert authority in all the cities were revolts had occurred. The king refused to call a meeting of the Estates General, but numerous local councils were summoned to meet in Compiègne, where minor taxation concessions were made to partially fund the war effort. Over the course of the next year the Duke of Burgundy set forth a plan to strengthen the government’s position and gradually arrested and executed their opponents. It was not until 1387 that the last of the issue of taxation was finally resolved, in favor of the king. The collapse of government revenues hastened the government to negotiate the Truce of Leulinghem, a long truce lasting several years with the English while they attempted to reassert their power.

Сердце (мультфильм)

рисованный

Борис Степанцев

Борис Степанцев

Никита Богословский

Союзмультфильм

СССР СССР

9 мин. 12 сек.

1971

«Се́рдце» — мультипликационный фильм, снятый по заказу Всемирной организации здравоохранения (ВОЗ). О причинах, вызывающих заболевания сердца и о профилактике этих опасных болезней. Для взрослых.

Ассоль • Злодейка с наклейкой • Приключения Мурзилки • Опять двойка • Петя и Красная Шапочка • Мурзилка на спутнике • Только не сейчас • Петух и краски • Вовка в Тридевятом царстве • Окно • Песня о соколе • Малыш и Карлсон • Карлсон вернулся • Сердце Скрипка пионера • Щелкунчик • Похождения Чичикова. Манилов • Похождения Чичикова. Ноздрёв • Муха-Цокотуха • Почему ослик заупрямился

Andy Hebler

Andy Hebler (* 5. Januar 1989) ist ein deutscher Fußballspieler. Er spielt seit Sommer 2014 für Energie Cottbus.

Hebler spielte in seiner Jugend für Blau-Weiß Straupitz, den SV Werben, Energie Cottbus und den BFC Dynamo. 2003 kehrte er zum SV Werben zurück. Ab 2007 spielte er für die Herrenmannschaft. 2009 wurde er von der zweiten Mannschaft seines ehemaligen Vereins Energie Cottbus verpflichtet. Bis 2012 bestritt er 77 Regionalligaspiele für die Lausitzer. In der Saison 2011/12 erzielte der linke Mittelfeldspieler 14 Tore und war damit bester Torschütze seiner Mannschaft. Zur Saison 2012/13 wechselte er zum Regionalligisten Holstein Kiel. Er kam in fast allen Spielen zum Einsatz, ehe er sich im März 2013 im Spiel gegen den BV Cloppenburg einen Kreuzbandriss zuzog. Am Ende der Saison stiegen die „Störche“ in die Dritte Liga auf. In der folgenden Saison zog er sich weitere Verletzungen zu, sodass er zu keinem Einsatz für die Profis kam.

Zur Saison 2014/15 kehrte Hebler zu Energie Cottbus zurück. Er kam vor allem im Reserveteam zum Einsatz, konnte jedoch am 13. Dezember 2014 bei der 0:1-Niederlage gegen Dynamo Dresden sein Drittligadebüt feiern. Am 29. Dezember 2015 löste er seinen Vertrag in Cottbus auf und wechselte zum Brandenburgligisten VfB 1921 Krieschow.

The Cingalee

The Cingalee, or Sunny Ceylon is a musical play in two acts by James T. Tanner, with music by Lionel Monckton, lyrics by Adrian Ross and Percy Greenbank, and additional material by Paul Rubens. It opened at Daly’s Theatre in London, managed by George Edwardes, on March 5, 1904 and ran until March 11, 1905 for a total of 365 (another source giving 391) performances. The musical had a short Broadway run, opening at the Original Daly’s Theatre in New York on October 24, 1904 and running for 33 performances.

The Cingalee is set in Ceylon and concerns colonial tea planters (one of the most popular songs in the score is called simply „Tea, tea, tea“!) in an era before this island paradise became the more troubled Sri Lanka. It was given a showy production and was a success in London. The fashion there for shows set in Asian locales had been started by The Mikado and continued by The Geisha, San Toy, The Nautch Girl, A Chinese Honeymoon and others. There is little in the music to give The Cingalee an Eastern flavour. However, Monckton’s catchy sextet, „The Island of Gay Ceylon“ and „Pearl of Sweet Ceylon“ and Ruben’s „White and Brown Girl“, „Sloe Eyes“, „Monkeys“ and „You and I“ are highlights of the musical score. The condescending racial nature of The Cingalee’s libretto, however, would be unacceptable today, and so The Cingalee is unlikely to be revived.

The London cast included Hayden Coffin, Rutland Barrington, Huntley Wright and Isabel Jay. A young Lily Elsie also appeared in the show, as did Topsy Sinden.

The first professional recording of Monckton works, including The Cingalee, was made in 2003 by Theatre Bel-Etage chorus and orchestra, conductor Mart Sander.

Act I – Vereker’s Tea Plantation, „Karagama,“ Ceylon

Act II – Boobhamba’s Palace by the Lake of Kandy

The Bishop’s Mantle

The Bishop’s Mantle is a novel by Agnes Sligh Turnbull about the grandson of an American Episcopal bishop in New York City in the early years of World War II.

Hilary Laurens, young Episcopal priest, about 1939, has recently returned to his hometown, somewhere in the American heartland (it isn’t known quite where), upon receiving sudden word that his grandfather, the Bishop of that diocese, and the only father he’s known, has suddenly taken ill and is dying, and after pressuring the taxi driver to make haste, Hilary arrives just in time to talk briefly with „Grandy“ just before the Bishop’s death. But Hilary is able to give the Bishop some good news on his deathbed: Hilary has just been „called“ (appointed vicar of) St. Matthews, a large church in a „great eastern city“, and thus can perpetuate the Bishop’s calling.

In course of the book, Hilary, at a time when the United States was, for the time being, neutral in the World War II raging in Europe, needs first to cope with the multiple challenges of becoming a vicar of a major church himself just at the moment his grandfather dies (the Bishop’s Mantle has fallen to him), dealing with the twin callings of a priest to keep his church financially viable, up to date, and yet in keeping of his duty to serve the poor, falling in love with the daughter of a wealthy church patron, and yet provide pastoral service to women in his flock, not all of whom want a priest so much as male company, and then finally deal with the odious consequences of the events of December 1941. The book was clearly written during the war but not published until shortly afterwards.

The book offers a sublime[citation needed] combination of religious piety combined with realism of the church’s place in modern society rarely found in American literature, and which perhaps only the recent books by Jan Karon about an Episcopal priest’s life in modern-day North Carolina can match.[citation needed]

At the same time, one or two things about the book show just how much the world has changed in the relatively short time since the book was written; for instance parishioners at that time needed to rent pews, and that was a major source of income for the church, and a bit of intrigue over that in the book is very puzzling until that point is grasped.[citation needed]

Hilary struggles to be a worthy replacement of his High Church predecessor, yet bring new meaning to his ministry, and cope with a persistent attempt of various persons to involve him in scandal, owing to the prominence of Lex’s family. At one point he delivers a striking mid-week sermon to young men (who could not ordinarily attend services on Sunday since they have not rented pews!), and begins to read the following passage from Proverbs Chapter 7 (selective, some verses left out):

This passage, which seems to say there is a place, after all, for romance in the life of a pious man, was revolutionary to read aloud, even though it is straight from the King James Bible.

While Hilary deals with his pastoral issues at home, events on the world stage are darkening by the hour. His brother Dick, in particular, even though the American involvement has not started, volunteers for ambulance service in Europe, and late in the novel four fateful things come together

But few readers today will be able to sustain that attitude: it a moment of consummate sadness, not only for Hilary but for a whole generation of men.

The novel, although it has a plot, and is written by a woman (and women were not permitted be Episcopal priests at the time the book was written), is something of an exploration of inner and outer life and moral conflicts of a dedicated Episcopal priest (no existential crises of faith as in books by non-religious authors, but many shadows of the temptations of the world, to which Hilary never permanently succumbs). However, Hilary is conflicted by the number of poor working-class people in his parish in desperate need of his care, despite the presence in his own vestry (church governing body/board) of powerful men who may be responsible for some of that misery.

1947, USA, MacMillan Company, Pub date 1947, hardcover (First edition)

Hurrikan Mitch

Der Hurrikan Mitch war ein atlantischer Hurrikan im Jahr 1998.

Vom 22. Oktober bis zum 8. November wütete er in Mittelamerika, wobei ca. 19.000 Menschen ums Leben kamen. Honduras und Nicaragua waren die am schwersten vom Hurrikan getroffenen Länder. Auch El Salvador und Guatemala litten unter den Folgen. Die volkswirtschaftlichen Schäden werden auf 7 Milliarden US-Dollar geschätzt. Mitch ist der tödlichste Hurrikan seit dem Großen Hurrikan von 1780.

Im November brach nach 10 Tagen Dauerregen der Vulkankrater Casitas auseinander. Unter einer riesigen Schlammlawine wurden mindestens 1.500 Menschen begraben. Auch andere Regionen in Nicaragua waren von dem durch Mitch ausgelösten Dauerregen betroffen. Insgesamt wurden rund 20 Quadratkilometer überschwemmt, mindestens 4.000 Menschen starben und 7.000 werden bis heute vermisst.

Die Opfer waren fast durchweg die Ärmsten, da sie an Flussufern und steilen Hängen in sogenannten Hochrisikogebieten leben, die wirtschaftlich so wertlos sind, dass niemand die illegalen Siedler vertreibt. Sie verloren ihre Häuser, Tiere und Ernten, und die Regierung schaffte es nicht, ihnen einen ebenbürtigen Ersatz zu besorgen. Da viele ihren gesamten Besitz verloren hatten, setzte eine große Landflucht ein.

Die Katastrophe kam aber nicht überraschend. In der Regenzeit kommt es immer wieder zu Überschwemmungen. Im Nachhinein stellte sich heraus, dass die zuständigen Behörden von dem bevorstehenden Dauerregen informiert waren, jedoch nichts unternahmen, um die Menschen in den betroffenen Regionen zu warnen.

Im Vergleich dazu starb 1988 lediglich ein Mensch, als der Sturm Joan zu 99 % die Stadt Bluefields dem Erdboden gleichmachte, da die FSLN rechtzeitig evakuiert hatte.

Eine genaue Angabe der Opfer der Katastrophe ist und wird nie möglich, da es keine zuverlässigen Daten über die Anzahl der in den betroffenen Regionen lebenden Menschen gab.

Die Infrastruktur Nicaraguas wurde massiv zerstört. Nach den Überschwemmungen kam es zu Plünderungen in den evakuierten Gebieten. Seuchen (beispielsweise Cholera, Malaria, Dengue-Fieber, Bindehautentzündungen und Durchfall) brachen aus und die Preise der Grundnahrungsmittel stiegen um das Dreifache. Weltweit rollte eine riesige Hilfswelle an. „Politische Touristen“ wie Hillary Clinton reisten nach Nicaragua, um sich vor Ort ein Bild der Schäden zu machen. Die Solidaritätsbewegung in Deutschland erhielt nach langen Jahren wieder etwas Aufschwung. Doch die finanzielle Hilfe versickerte fast spurlos.

Das Ausmaß der Katastrophe hätte etwas eingedämmt werden können, wenn die Hilfe an die Bedürftigen gelangt wäre. In Nicaragua bediente Präsident Alemán nach dem Wirbelsturm Mitch zunächst einmal diejenigen Gemeinden, die von seiner „Liberal Konstitutionalistischen Partei“ regiert werden. Um traditionelle Hochburgen der Sandinisten machten die Hilfslaster einen großen Bogen. Die jahrelangen Einsparungen am Militär machten sich nun besonders bemerkbar, da es nicht genügend Helikopter gab, um Hilfslieferungen in die betroffenen Gebiete zu bringen. Schon zu Zeiten der Sandinisten während des Bürgerkriegs hatte das Militär in Nicaragua nur 8 Hubschrauber. Die Katastrophe oder vielmehr die ausbleibende Katastrophenhilfe machte die strukturellen Probleme Nicaraguas deutlich sichtbar.

Die Landfrage spitzte sich erneut zu, denn die obdachlos gewordene Bevölkerung wohnte auf dem ihr zugewiesenen Staatsgebiet. Alemán wollte das Land jedoch nicht den neuen Bewohnern einfach überschreiben, weil er darauf spekulierte, es noch irgendwie gewinnbringend verkaufen zu können. Durch die ungeklärte Sachlage wurde der Wiederaufbau monatelang blockiert und die Menschen waren gezwungen in ihren provisorischen Unterkünften zu warten, während sich neben ihnen das Baumaterial türmte.

Im Aufbau der Infrastruktur wurden zugleich die Straßen begünstigt, die zu Alemáns Immobilien führten. Deutsche Minister forderten nach einer Besichtigung der Lage in Nicaragua das sofortige Aussetzen jeglicher Hilfsleistungen an das Land, da nicht nachzuvollziehen sei, wohin die Gelder fließen.

Da Ernten ausgefallen waren und der Tourismus zurückgegangen war, wurde versucht, durch weitere neoliberale Wirtschaftsmaßnahmen Geld in die Staatskasse zu bekommen. International versuchten einige Länder, Nicaragua durch Schuldenerlasse zu unterstützen, doch die tatsächliche Hilfe für die Bevölkerung leisteten letztendlich die Nichtregierungsorganisationen. Obgleich sie überfordert waren, mit solch einer Katastrophe umzugehen, schafften sie es, sich zu organisieren und ihre Streitereien über die „richtige“ Unterstützung für einige Zeit beizulegen.

Der Hurrikan Mitch wurde häufig mit dem verheerenden Erdbeben von 1972 verglichen und Alemán mit Somoza. Wie er nutzte Alemán die Situation zur persönlichen Bereicherung. Im Zuge der Antikorruptionskampagne wurden einige Bereicherungen von Seiten der Regierung aufgedeckt, doch viel Geld bleibt bis heute spurlos verschwunden.

Emmanuel Maffre-Baugé

Emmanuel Maffre de Baugé, dit Emmanuel Maffre-Baugé (Marseillan,  – Bélarga, ), est un vigneron et écrivain français, catholique fervent fortement engagé dans la cause vigneronne et aux côtés du Parti communiste français.

Emmanuel Maffre-Baugé annonce en octobre 1975 sa démission des fonctions de Président de la Fédération Nationale des vins de table et de pays.

En 1977, Emmanuel Maffre-Baugé est interrogé en pleine campagne dans le Midi sur la condition des viticulteurs. Il évoque « une situation dramatique ». La plupart d’entre eux vivent au dessous du SMIC. Pour lui les viticulteurs sont victimes d’une politique dans laquelle „l’intérêt des marchands domine celui des hommes“.

Il occupe un siège de député au Parlement européen de 1979 à 1989.

Il est également le petit-fils du poète occitan Achille Maffre de Baugé.

Il est décédé à Bélarga et repose dans le cimetière de ce village, dans le département de l’Hérault, où il vécut et où il possédait son exploitation viticole.

Le collège de Paulhan, ainsi que l’école primaire du village de Bélarga, portent son nom.